Respond to this APA cite 250 wordsAccording to Shi (2008), factor analysis is a statistical technique that involves exploring the relationships between variables, determining if related variables can

Respond to this APA cite 250 words

According to Shi (2008), factor analysis is a statistical technique that involves exploring the relationships between variables, determining if related variables can be explained by a smaller number of underlying factors or constructs, and reducing the number of variables in the analysis, if appropriate (p. 386). Factor analysis could be applied to any number of health services research topics in which current knowledge in incomplete (Shi, 2008, p. 386). For example, factor analysis would be used in the assessment of validity in the method of construct validity where the validity can be measured using factor analysis, which would indicate whether the clustering of items chosen to be part of a particular measure have been grouped together appropriately (Shi, 2008, pg. 297). Another example includes the measurement of depression and anxiety. In order to create an appropriate screening tool that distinguishes between depression and anxiety, a researcher could perform a factor analysis on a pilot screening tool. He or she would screen a sample of patients using the tool, and then perform a factor analysis to see how well (or how poorly) the different types of questions hang together (Shi, 2008, pg. 386).

Multilevel analysis techniques are useful when data exist at several different levels (Shi, 2008, pg. 387). If data are nested, or if a study has several different units of analysis, multilevel analysis is a valuable tool. For instance, multilevel analysis could be used in: a study comparing quality improvement achievements of departments within several different hospitals, a longitudinal study in which several distinct observations are made on individuals over time, or a meta-analysis in which subjects are nested within different studies (Shi, 2008, pg. 387).

2.)    According to Shi (2008), before communicating research findings, investigators must know who their intended audiences are because the types of communication channels vary depending on the audience (pg. 392). Potential audiences may be divided into three groups: the research community (methods of communication including; Journal articles conference presentations, working papers, monographs, and books), Stakeholders (methods of communication including; research proposals, reports, symposiums, testimonies, and research notes), and the Public (methods of communications include; newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and brochures) (Shi, 2008, pg. 392).

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